Small Animal Normals & Protocols

The rapid turn around of assay results for our clients enables you to provide the best health care for your patients. For example, we receive serum samples for canine progesterone assays from many clinics throughout the North America. Concentrations are reported to the veterinarian the same afternoon samples are received; allowing for sufficient time to order semen.

BET Laboratories continues to provide endocrine testing that is accurate and rapid at a competitive price supported by consultation that is always available at no cost to our clients.

In all cases, a thorough clinical history and physical examination should ultimately be used to suggest endocrine testing, and to eventually diagnose any abnormalities. The case history will suggest a specific assay or assays that will assist in confirming the diagnosis.

NORMAL RANGES FOR SMALL ANIMALS

HORMONECANINEFELINE
Total T415.0 – 30.0 ng/mL15.0 – 40.0 ng/mL
Total T31.0 – 2.0 ng/mL0.3 – 0.9 ng/mL
Cortisol5 - 60.0 ng/mL10.0 – 30.0 ng/mL
Cortisol post-ACTH70.0 – 160.0 ng/mL50.0 – 100.0 ng/mL
Insulin5.0 – 25.0 µIU/mL2.0 – 10.0 µIU/mL
ACTH10.0 – 45.0 pg/mL10.0 – 45.0 pq/mL
TestosteroneIntact males: 1000 – 7000 pg/mL
Females: < 50.0 pg/mL
Intact males: 1000 – 6000 pg/mL
Females: < 50.0 pg/mL
Total EstrogensProestrus: > 15.0 pg/mL
Late estrus: > 50.0 pg/mL
Estrus: 15.0 – 50.0 pg/mL
Pregnant: < 50.0 pg/mL
Spayed: < 50.0 pg/mL
Male: < 50.0 pg/mL
Queens: 40.0 – 90.0 pg/mL
ProgesteroneAnestrus: < 1.0 ng/mL
Proestrus: < 1.0 ng/mL
Spayed: < 1.0 ng/mL
Ovulatory: 4.0 – 10.0 ng/mL
Estrus: 0 – 20.0 ng/mL
Diestrus: 10.0 – 50.0 ng/mL
Pregnant: 10.0 – 50.0 ng/mL - 4 ng/mL @ 58 days
Male: < 0.4 ng/mL
Anestrus: < 1.0 ng/mL
Estrus: < 1.0 ng/mL
Diestrus: 5.0 – 15.0 ng/mL
Pregnant: 5.0 – 15.0 ng/mL
LH0.5 - 5.0 ng/mL0.5 – 5.0 ng/mL
FSH0.5 – 15 ng/mL0.5 – 15 ng/mL

ANOVULATORY BITCH

~ Initially test Total T4 and Progesterone.

~ If Progesterone is less than 4.0 ng/mL, a series of samples need to be drawn once a week, for three weeks.

~ Vaginal swabs should also be examined for presence of cornified cells.

~ If Progesterone is greater than 4.0 ng/mL, then she has in fact ovulated and may be a “hidden estrus” case.

~ If the Total T4 is less than 15 ng/mL, treatment for hypothyroidism may be beneficial.

OVARIAN REMNANT SYNDROME - hCG stimulation or Serial Estrogen/Progesterone

1. hCG Stimulation

~ Test Total Estrogens and Progesterone to detect the presence of an intact ovary, or an ovarian remnant.

~ Perform an hCG Stimulation Test

 

HCG STIMULATION TEST
SAMPLES HORMONES TO ASSAY
BASELINEProgesterone, Total Estrogens
Administer 200 IU hCG, IM
90 Minutes Post InjectionTotal Estrogens

 

OR

 

2. Serial Estrogen and Progesterone

~ Test Total Estrogens and Progesterone in a series of samples over a three-week period.

~ Collect approximately three to five samples, two or more days apart.

~ Send all samples at the same time.

~ If Progesterone level is over 1.0 ng/mL, or Estrogen is greater than 40 pg/mL, it is suggestive of ovarian tissue present.

~ Vaginal cytology should also be monitored.

 

CRYPTORCHID

A single random sample assaying Testosterone has very little value due to wide fluctuations. Therefore the recommended protocol to analyze testicular production of Testosterone involves a stimulation utilizing GnRH or hCG.

CANINE CRYPTORCHID
SAMPLE TIME HORMONES TO ASSAY
BASELINETestosterone
Administer 1000 IU hCG, IMTestosterone 1 hr & 2 hours Post Injection
or
Administer 100 ug GnRH, IMTestosterone 2 hr & 4 hours Post Injection
FELINE CRYPTORCHID
SAMPLE TIME HORMONES TO ASSAY
BASELINETestosterone
Administer 250 - 500 hCG, IMTestosterone 1 hr & 2 hours Post Injection

HYPOTHYROIDISM

Canine: Test Total T4; That’s it!

FELINE T3 SUPPRESSION TEST
SAMPLE TIME HORMONES TO ASSAY
BASELINETotal T4
Day 1 - Administer T3 25 mg TID
Day 2 - Administer T3 25 mg TID
Day 3 - Administer T3 25 mg TID
2 HOURS POST 3RD INJECTIONTotal T4
4 HOURS POST 3RD INJECTIONTotal T4

BETA CELL TUMOR

~ Most dogs with beta cell tumors are persistently hypoglycemic (glucose is less than 60 mg/dL).

~ Fast animal until glucose falls below 60 to 70 mg/dL, as determined by glucose reagent strips.

~ Obtain serum sample for Insulin analysis. In 68% of dogs with beta cell tumors Insulin levels were greater than 20 µI.U./mL.

~ 24% had levels between 10 – 20 µIU/mL, and 8% had levels between 5 – 10 µIU/mL.

ALOPECIA

Initially test Total T4, Progesterone, Total Estrogen and Testosterone. If all are within the normal range, then perform a Cushing’s screen (see NEXT protocols – CANINE HYPERADRENOCORTICISM).

 

CANINE HYPERADRENOCORTICISM

CANINE ACTH STIMULATION 1A
SAMPLE TIME HORMONES TO ASSAY
BASELINECortisol
Administer Cortisol - 40
(porcine aqueous gelatin ACTH) 2.2 IU/KG, IM
2 HOURS POST INJECTIONCortisol
CANINE ACTH STIMULATION 1B
SAMPLE TIME HORMONES TO ASSAY
BASELINECortisol
Administer Cortrosyn - 40
(synthetic ACTH) 0.25 mg, IM
1 HOUR POST INJECTIONCortisol

~ Normal baseline Cortisol level: 5 – 60 ng/mL

~ Normal Cortisol level post ACTH: 60-170 ng/mL

~ Borderline cortisol level post ACTH: 170-220 ng/mL

~ Consistent with Cushing’s disease diagnosis: 220 ng/mL

DEXAMETHASONE SUPPRESSION 2A
SAMPLE TIME HORMONES TO ASSAY
BASELINECortisol
Administer Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate 0.01 mg/kg, IV
4 HOUR POST INJECTIONCortisol
8 HOUR POST INJECTIONCortisol
DEXAMETHASONE SUPPRESSION 2B
SAMPLE TIME HORMONES TO ASSAY
BASELINECortisol
Administer Dexamethasone in Polyethylene Glycol 0.01 mg/kg, IV
4 HOUR POST INJECTIONCortisol
8 HOUR POST INJECTIONCortisol

~ Normal baseline Cortisol level: 5 – 60 ng/mL

~ Normal Cortisol level post ACTH: < 10 ng/mL ~ Borderline cortisol level post ACTH: >10 – 14 ng/mL

~ Consistent with Cushing’s disease diagnosis: 14 ng/mL

ENDOGENOUS ACTH LEVELS

~ Sample PLASMA between 8-9 AM after overnight hospitalization.
~ Collect PLASMA in a CHILLED, silicone-coated EDTA tube, CENTRIFUGE, transfer to a PLASTIC VIAL, and then FREEZE.
~ Send sample OVERNIGHT, FROZEN on dry ice.

~ Normal Endogenous ACTH level: 10 – 45 pg/mL
~ Pituitary dependent hyperadrenocorticism: < 45 pg/mL
~ Adrenocortical tumor hyperadrenocorticism: 10 pg/mL

CANINE PROGESTERONE GUIDE